Recognized as a colony by the UN since 1960, the U.S. has been in Violation of International Law 
                and  Human Rights in Puerto Rico for more than a century on three main issues:
                1) Colonial Status
                2) Military Presence
                3) Political Prisoners 


                Because Puerto Rico is neither a state nor a sovereign nation, status issues are presented in Congress
                before the U.S. Senate Committee on 'Energy & Resources'.  
               -Puerto Ricans throughout the archipelago of Puerto Rico, Vieques and Culebra have been U.S. citizens 
                since 1917 but they have No Voting Rights, No Protection Under the U.S. Constitution and 
                No Representation in Congress.               
                                                                   U.S. - PUERTO RICO  RELATIONS

      1898 -The U.S. invades Puerto Rico.
      1917 - Jones Act conferred a “statutory” U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans (although Puerto Rico’s legislature
                 opposed it) This means their citizenship was granted by Congress, not by the Constitution, citizenship therefore,                       
                 is not guaranteed and the rights inherent in the U.S. constitution do not apply.
               -The U.S. was in grave need of soldiers to fight WWI.  As U.S. citizens, Puerto Ricans would fight in every U.S.                          
                 conflict beginning with WWI through the present.

                 Under Commonwealth arrangements, the U.S. governs Puerto Rico’s:
                       Interstate Trade, Foreign Relations and Commerce, Customs, Control of Air, Land and Sea, 
                 Immigration and Emigration, Nationality and Citizenship, Currency and Maritime Laws, Military Service, 
                 Military, Declaration of War, Bases, Constitutionality of Laws, Jurisdictions and Legal Procedures,
                 Treaties, Radio, Television and Media, Agriculture, Mining & Minerals, Highways, Postal System,
                 Social Security and other areas generally controlled by the federal government in the U.S. 
                 Puerto Ricans control internal affairs unless U.S. law is involved, as in matters of public health and pollution.

      1937  -The Ponce Massacre (La Masacre de Ponce) Hundreds of Nationalist are killed and injured.
                -Nationalists and Independence party members are routinely extradited to (foreign) jails in the U.S.
      1941  -U.S. establishes military bases in the islands of Culebra and Vieques (part or Puerto Rico’s archipelago).
                -20,000 islanders were drafted into WWI. (Puerto Ricans have fought in disproportionate numbers in every 
                  U.S. war)
                -Roosevelt Roads Naval Station, one of the 13 military bases established, would encompass 32,000 acres, 
                 three harbors and two-thirds of the island of Vieques, displacing thousands of residents, forcing them  
                 to live between a bombing range and Munitions Storage Bunkers.                
      1948  -Gag Law (Ley de la Mordaza) made it illegal to display a Puerto Rican flag, sing a patriotic tune, talk of 
      1950  -Nationalists attempt to kill President Truman at Blair House, one of the assailants and one White House
                 policeman die.
      1952  -The P.R. flag is officially adopted and a New Constitution is approved proclaiming Puerto Rico a
                 Commonwealth, this status frees U.S. administrators from the obligation of having to report on 
                 Puerto Rico’s status to the UN Decolonization Committee.              
      1954  -Puerto Rican Nationalists open fire in the U.S. House of Representatives wounding five Congressmen. 
                 They are sentenced to 50 years imprisonment. Years later they are pardoned by President Carter.
      1960  -In the 1940’s, independence was the second largest political movement in Puerto Rico.  By the 1960’s,  
                 J.Edgar Hoover had prioritized it's demise through illegal surveillance of educational and social organizations, 
                 the takeover of the free press, extreme jail terms without indictments and extradition to the U.S.                 
      1971  -U.S. army takes possession of almost all of Culebra Island.
      1972 - United Nations passed a resolution identifying Puerto Rico as a colony of the U.S., calling for self- determination
      1975  -A bomb is set off in historical Frances Tavern in NYC, killing four and injuring more than 50 persons.
                -Police officers were responsible for the death, in execution manner, of two pro-independence men at
                  Cerro Maravilla, their trial is televised to the public.
      1976  -U.S. Internal Revenue Tax Code Section 936 is implemented, allowing American companies to make
                  profit in the island without paying taxes. The subsequent U.S. drug, electronic and clothing companies 
                  would walk away with $13 billion in annual profits (with no environmental or other restrictions).              
                  Of the hundreds of ‘brand’ products made for U.S. and International consumption, none given credit to
                  Puerto Rico’s labor force, instead of ‘Made in Puerto Rico’,  all labels read ‘Made is USA’.
      1979  -President Carter grants executive clemency freeing Nationalists who had been in prison since 1954.
      1981  -Los Macheteros blow up 8 jet fighters belonging to Puerto Rico’s National Guard, near San Juan airport.
    1990‘s -The Navy was made $80 million a year by renting Vieques as a bombing range to NATO allies.    
                 The Navy website neglect to mention that Vieques is inhabited, with a substantial civilian population.                
     1999  -Two Marine jets in training drop bombs over the island of Vieques, killing a civilian and injuring 4 citizens.
                 Citizens of Puerto Rico, Vieques and the U.S. mainland begin to occupy the Navy bombing range.
                -In 1999, following dozens of lawsuits against the FBI, citizens were compensated for having been harassed 
                 and blacklisted due to their association with the “legal” Independence Party of Puerto Rico.
                -President Clinton gives clemency to 16 Puerto Rican independence activists, jailed an average of 26 years.
                -Following dozens of lawsuits against the FBI, citizens were compensated for having been harassed and         
                 blacklisted due to their association with the “legal” Independence Party of Puerto Rico.
     2000  -Bombings resume in Vieques, using non-explosive dummy bombs, a year later bombing is suspended.
     2003  -Naval bombing practice and rental of bombing range to foreign military comes to an end in Vieques.
                The U.S. renames their former bombing range a 'A National Wildlife Refuge'
     2006  -Juan Mari Bras becomes the first citizen of Puerto Rico to receive a Puerto Rican citizen certificate.
                  (Puerto Ricans have no passport of their own).
               -U.S. has repeatedly attempted to impose the death penalty for certain criminal cases, ignoring the fact that 
                 the people of Puerto Rico insist that it violates their moral, religious and democratic values.
     2009  -Governor Luis Fortuno is mentioned as a possible Republican presidential candidate for 2012.
                As a Puerto Rican, Governor Fortuno is an American citizen who can RUN for president but 
                cannot VOTE for President.


                                                                                                                                                           U.S.-P.R. Relations.pdf
Escape to Paradise     a political thriller by Perla de Leon
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     International laws affirm the rights of all colonized peoples to use
     any form of struggle necessary to gain national independence.
(download PDF)

Special committee decision of 18 of June 2012 concerning Puerto Rico.

Special Committee on the Situation with regard to the Implementation of the Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples.

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